Mariano Rivera (born November 29, 1969, in Panama City, Panama) is a professional baseball player. He is a relief pitcher for Major League Baseball's New York Yankees. He throws and bats right-handed. Nicknamed "Mo, and Sandman," Rivera originally began his Major League career as a starting pitcher in 1995, but it was after he was moved to the bullpen and converted to closer that he found success. He has subsequently become one of the premier closers in the majors.
Many people within baseball argue that Rivera is the greatest postseason relief pitcher and the greatest closer in baseball history. Along with having the third-most career regular season saves in Major League history, Rivera is the Major League's all-time postseason leader in saves and ERA. In his career with the Yankees, Rivera has won 4 World Series titles.
Rivera is well known for his signature pitch, a sharp-breaking cut fastball. He is the last active MLB player to wear the uniform number 42, which was retired throughout baseball in 1997 in honor of Jackie Robinson.
Rivera grew up in Panama frequently playing baseball with his friends, substituting milk cartons for gloves and tree branches for bats. Although his father was a fisherman, Rivera never dreamed of taking up the profession, calling the job "way too tough." As a 19-year old, Mariano had to abandon a capsizing 120-ton commercial boat he had been aboard, all but convincing him to give the job up.
Minor leagues (1990–1994)Edit
In 1990, a 20 year-old Rivera, then a shortstop, volunteered to pitch for his Panamá Oeste team. A scout for the New York Yankees, Herb Raybourn was in attendance at one of his games. Although Rivera had no formal pitching training, he was throwing 85–87 MPH with a smooth delivery, prompting Raybourn to sign Rivera to a contract with a $3,000 signing bonus. Rivera rewarded Raybourn's faith by posting ERAs of 2.75 (with Greensboro) and 2.28 (with Ft. Lauderdale) in 1991 and 1992, respectively.
Rivera's minor league career was interrupted when he had Tommy John surgery in 1992 to fix nerve damage in his elbow. His rehabilitation coincided with the 1992 expansion draft for the Florida Marlins and Colorado Rockies; Rivera was left unprotected but was not drafted. Rivera successfully rehabilitated his arm in 1993 and resumed pitching that year. In 1994, he ascended from Class A to AA and then AAA, striking out 89 batters while issuing only 20 walks over the course of the year.
Call-up to major leagues (1995)Edit
Rivera's rookie year in the Major Leagues was 1995, initially as a starting pitcher. He found mixed success, posting a 5–3 record and 5.51 ERA that year. As a result, he split time between the Yankees and their AAA affiliate in Columbus. As a 25 year-old rookie with major arm surgery in his past, Rivera's role on the team was not guaranteed. The Yankees considered trading Rivera to the Detroit Tigers for David Wells. However, a surprise improvement prompted a change of heart. In one minor league start, Rivera suddenly began throwing 95–96 MPH. Rivera started ten games for the Yankees that season, participating in a two-hit shutout of the Chicago White Sox on July 4, in which he recorded a career-high eleven strikeouts. Rivera's sudden improvement and his success in the 1995 American League Division Series, in which he pitched 5.1 scoreless innings of relief, convinced Yankees' management to keep him and move him into the bullpen the following season.
Set-up man (1996)Edit
In 1996, Rivera served primarily as a set-up man for the closer John Wetteland. Rivera typically would pitch the 7th and 8th innings, before Wetteland pitched in the 9th. Their effectiveness as a tandem essentially shortened their games to 6 innings, as the Yankees had a 70–3 record that season when leading after the 6th inning. The Yankees utilized a "6-2-1" strategy by aiming for six innings from the starting pitcher, two from Rivera, and one from Wetteland. The Yankees won 29 of 31 games in which the pair appeared. Rivera played an important role in the Yankees winning the World Series that year (their first championship since 1978). In 107 2/3 innings pitched that season, Rivera only allowed one home run. At one point, Rivera pitched 26 consecutive scoreless innings, including 15 consecutive hitless innings. Setting a Yankee record for strikeouts by a reliever in a season (130), Rivera came in third for the Cy Young Award voting, behind twenty-game winners Pat Hentgen and teammate Andy Pettitte, respectively.
Closer career (1997–present)Edit
When Wetteland left the team as a free agent the following season, Rivera inherited the role of Yankees' closer for the 1997 season. It would not be a seamless transition from set-up man to closer, as he blew 3 of his first 6 save opportunities. Eventually, Rivera settled into the role, earning his first All-Star selection, and finishing with 43 saves and a 1.88 ERA in the 1997 regular season; it was also that year that Rivera began to enter to Metallica's "Enter Sandman", as well throw a cut fastball, which quickly became his signature pitch. Rivera's 1997 postseason was not as successful as his regular season. He blew a save in Game 4 of the ALDS against the Cleveland Indians by allowing a game-tying home run to Sandy Alomar, Jr., with the Yankees four outs from advancing to the American League Championship Series. The Yankees eventually lost that game and the next and were eliminated from the playoffs.
Many were concerned that the disappointment of the previous season's end would affect Rivera's performance in the future, but he put any such concerns to rest. In the following seasons, Rivera became one of the best closers in the Major Leagues. Rivera saved 36 games in 1998 and finished with a 1.91 ERA, helping the Yankees win 125 total games and another World Series. In 1999, Rivera lead the American League with 45 saves and won the World Series MVP Award in winning a third championship title. Two years later, he once again led the American League in saves with 50.
Rivera's success in the postseason has been key in each of the Yankees' four recent World Series titles (in 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2000). His 34 postseason saves and 0.77 lifetime postseason ERA are both Major League records; no pitcher has half as many postseason saves as Rivera. From 1998 to 2001, Rivera converted 23 consecutive postseason saves, and from 1998 to 2000, he pitched 34 1/3 consecutive scoreless innings in the postseason; both feats are also Major League records. Rivera has a record of 8–1 in the postseason with a 0.75 WHIP. He is often called upon to convert two-inning saves in the postseason, recording twelve of this variety. Additionally, he has recorded a 0.00 ERA in seventeen separate postseason series.
Rivera's consistency is such that many fans remember his missteps more so than his successes. Rivera's most disappointing moment came in Game 7 of the 2001 World Series. After pitching a shutout eighth inning, Rivera was two outs from winning a fourth consecutive World Series title when he blew the save and Series in the bottom of the 9th inning, eventually allowing Luis Gonzalez's "bloop" single with the bases loaded to score the winning run.
Rivera missed the first month of the 2003 season while he was on the disabled list with a groin injury. Juan Acevedo took over closing duties while Rivera healed. Despite going six-for-six in save opportunities as closer, Acevedo pitched very poorly for the Yankees, yielding a 7.71 ERA, and he was soon released. Rivera debuted on May 1 and quickly returned to form. During the 2003 season, he appeared in 64 regular season games and posted 40 saves and a 1.66 ERA. In the postseason, Rivera threw 16 2/3 innings while allowing only one run, which lowered his lifetime postseason ERA to 0.75.
In the 2003 American League Championship Series against the wild-card Red Sox, he recorded two key two-inning saves in Games 3 and 5. In Game 7, Rivera delivered one of the best postseason performances of his career. He entered the game in the 9th inning with the score tied and pitched three scoreless innings en route to becoming the game's winning pitcher; it was the first time he had pitched that many innings in a game since 1996. Though Aaron Boone’s 11th-inning homer ended the game and clinched the Yankees' World Series berth, Rivera was named the series' MVP for recording two saves and a win. The most memorable image of Rivera from that game was his celebration following Boone's home run; he ran out to the mound and collapsed in joy and exhaustion to thank God, as Boone rounded the bases and was mobbed by his teammates at home plate. Rivera was carried on the shoulders of his teammates during the celebration.
Prior to the 2004 season, with a year left on his contract, Rivera signed a two-year contract extension. The deal also included an option of a third year (for 2007) if Rivera finished enough games.
The 2004 season was another stellar year for Rivera. He made the All-Star team with 32 saves at the break, then an American League record. In addition to becoming the seventeenth pitcher in MLB history to record 300 saves, he won his third Rolaids Relief Man of the Year Award and finished third in voting for the Cy Young Award, posting a 1.94 ERA and a career best 53 saves.
The Yankees won their seventh straight American League East championship. In the 2004 ALDS, Mariano appeared in all four games and allowed no earned runs, despite blowing a save. However, following the ALDS, joy turned to mourning for Rivera. He learned that two of his relatives in Panama had been killed at his home when electrified guard wire fell into the pool they were in. Rivera immediately flew home, and his status for the upcoming ALCS was in doubt. Although the funeral in Panama was held on the same day as Game 1 against the Boston Red Sox, Rivera flew 2,200 miles back to New York and arrived at Yankee Stadium in the 5th inning to a standing ovation. Having suffered through a very emotional day, Rivera was able to record a save later that night, as well as in Game 2.
With the Yankees up 3–0 in the series, Rivera blew saves in Games 4 and 5, allowing the Red Sox to avoid elimination. In Game 4, protecting a 4–3 lead in the 9th inning, Rivera walked lead-off hitter Kevin Millar. Pinch runner Dave Roberts stole second base and scored on a single by Bill Mueller to tie the game. The Red Sox eventually won in extra innings. The following night, with the Yankees staked to 4–3 lead in the 8th inning, Rivera entered the game with runners on 1st and 3rd base and no outs. He allowed only a sacrifice fly to Jason Varitek, but it tied the score. Like the night before, the Red Sox would win in extra innings. Rivera only allowed one earned run in the entire 2004 post-season, but the comeback wins in Games 4 and 5 allowed Boston to survive and begin its historic comeback; they would win the series in seven games.
Unlike previous years, Rivera did not throw during the winter in the offseason. This led many to believe he needed more rest to recover from the 2004 season, in which he saw the most activity of his reliever career. Although Rivera missed nine days during Spring Training with elbow bursitis, he was ready to play for Opening Day. The 2005 season started out on a low note for Rivera, as he blew his first two saves of the season against the Red Sox (marking four consecutive blown saves against Boston, dating back to the previous postseason). Fans at Yankee Stadium booed him, drawing the ire of his teammates. The stretch prompted many people in the baseball world to question whether Rivera was a dominant pitcher anymore. Rivera was subsequently cheered by Red Sox fans during pre-game introductions at Fenway Park the following week, as recognition for his subpar performance against the Red Sox. Rivera took the ovation with a good sense of humor and tipped his cap to the crowd.
Rivera would have the last laugh, though, as 2005 proved to be the greatest year of his career. He converted a career-best 31 consecutive save opportunities en route to recording a total of 43 saves in 47 opportunities. His 1.38 ERA was a career low, as was his 0.87 WHIP. His batting average against was .177 (the second-best mark of his career), his OPS against was .465 (a career low), and his K/9 was 9.19 (then, the second-best mark of his closer career). He only allowed one run in road games all year. Rivera finished second in the race for the AL Cy Young Award to Bartolo Colón and ninth in the AL Most Valuable Player voting. He also notched the save in the 2005 All-Star Game.
In 2006, despite a rough April, Rivera made his third consecutive All-Star Team, with a 1.76 ERA, 19 saves in 21 opportunities, and a 0.91 WHIP going into the All-Star Break. Chicago White Sox manager Ozzie Guillén announced in advance that he would use Rivera to close the All-Star Game, a compliment considering Guillen's closer for the White Sox, Bobby Jenks, also made the team. Mariano ended up saving the game for the American League in a comeback victory against National League closer Trevor Hoffman, the only active player with more saves than Rivera. The save was Rivera's third in an All-Star Game, making him and Dennis Eckersley the only two pitchers to reach the milestone.
At the beginning of September 2006, Rivera was sidelined with an elbow strain in his throwing arm. With the Yankees leading the Red Sox in the AL East divisional race by a large margin, the team decided to rest him for most of September. Rivera finished the 2006 season with 34 saves in 37 opportunities and an ERA of 1.80, the fourth consecutive season he posted a sub-2.00 ERA. Although he was well-rested for the postseason for the first time in years, the Yankees were unable to advance past the first round. He pitched just one inning against Detroit, in a non-save situation.
During the regular season, Rivera finished enough games to earn the option for a third year on his contract, which expired after the 2007 season. His performance in 2006 also won him the DHL Delivery Man of the Year Award for a 2nd consecutive season, and MLB.com's Closer of the Year Award for the 3rd consecutive season.
Prior to the 2007 season, Rivera attempted to extend his contract past the end of the season. The Yankees were reluctant to negotiate a deal, due to the proximity of the negotiations to the start of the season. Rivera made headlines by responding if he did not receive an extension from the Yankees, he would pursue free agency.
On April 15, 2007, players around the league wore uniform number 42 in honor of the 60th Anniversary of Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier. Rivera took part in the festivities by wearing the number as usual. For his entire career, Rivera has worn number 42, which has been retired by all Major League Baseball teams since 1997 in honor of Robinson. Rivera is permitted to use the number due to a grandfather clause allowing active players to retain it if they had worn the number prior to its league-wide retirement. As the only remaining player covered by the clause, Rivera will be the last Major League player to wear the number full-time.
Despite a sparkling spring training, Rivera had an uncharacteristically bad month in April. He blew his first two save opportunities, compiled two losses, and gave up 9 earned runs in 7 2/3 innings. Rivera saved one game that month and his performance prompted writers to question whether something was wrong. Many attributed his struggles early in the year to infrequent use, as the Yankees presented him with few opportunities to enter a game. Rivera responded by saving 30 of his next 32 opportunities and posting a 2.22 ERA over the final five months of the season. Still, the 2007 regular season was Rivera's weakest statistical season as a closer, in many respects. He gave up career highs in earned runs (25) and hits (68) as a closer, and his 3.15 ERA was his highest mark as a reliever. His 30 saves in 34 opportunities were his second-lowest total as a closer. He did, however, set a career best for K/9 as a closer (9.34) and he was fourth in the American League with 58 games finished.
On July 14, 2007, Rivera passed John Franco for third place on the all-time saves list by recording his 425th career save in a game against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays. Rivera only trails Lee Smith and Trevor Hoffman on that list.
In the 2007 postseason, Rivera appeared in three games and pitched 4 2/3 scoreless innings, all in non-save situations. He lowered his all-time best postseason ERA to 0.77. Still, the Yankees failed to advance past the first round for the third consecutive year. The day after the Yankees were eliminated from the playoffs, Rivera stated that he intended to test the free agent market. Rivera eventually agreed to a 3-year, $45 million contract to remain a New York Yankee. This contract, averaging $15 million per year, will make him the highest paid reliever in baseball history.
Rivera started the 2008 season on a hot streak. Within the first two weeks of the 2008 season, Rivera matched his save total (four) through the first two months of the 2007 season. Rivera finished April eight-for-eight in save opportunities, allowing four baserunners and no walks or earned runs in 11 innings that entire month. His performance earned him the DHL Presents the Delivery Man of the Month Award for April. Rivera set a personal best by pitching 16 consecutive scoreless innings to start the season. On June 2, 2008, Rivera was named the American League Player of the Week for pitching five scoreless innings and converting three saves the previous week. Rivera also became the first pitcher since 1975 to successfully convert his first 22 save opportunities without allowing any runs in those outings. His performance in the first half of the season earned him his ninth All-Star invitation. With the 2008 MLB All-Star Game being held at Yankee Stadium in the venue's final year of existence, some people have proposed making Rivera the American League starting pitcher to pay tribute to him and the stadium.
On Sunday night June 28, 2009, in an interleague game at CitiField against rthe New York Mets, Mariano Rivera became the 2nd player to record 500 major league saves. Trevor Hoffman, now with the Milwaukee Brewers, had 572 at that point. On Friday night, September 18, 2009, Rivera's longest save streak of his career, 36 consecutive conversions, came to an end in Seattle when, with 2 out in the ninth inning, Mike Sweeney had a pinch-hit double and Ichiro Suzuki hit a 2-run game-winning home run, resulting in a 3-2 Yankee defeat. Felix Herndandez had a complete game win for Seattle in the game where the save-streak ended.
Rivera's signature pitch is his cut fastball or "cutter". He mixes this pitch with both a four-seam and two-seam fastball. He throws all three between 91 and 97 MPH, usually at 92–95 MPH. The origin of the cutter is in question: Rivera explained to Adrian Wojnarowski of The Bergen Record that he discovered the cutter accidentally while playing catch with Ramiro Mendoza. He told Tom Verducci of Sports Illustrated, "It was just from God. I didn’t do anything. It was natural." A New York Daily News article written by T.J. Quinn, however, claims that Rivera learned to throw his cutter from John Wetteland when Rivera was his set-up man in 1996. Rivera's cutter is a heavily feared pitch by Major League hitters, such as Chipper Jones, who compared it to a "buzzsaw," (referring to its tendency of breaking left-handed hitters' bats) and Jim Thome, who called it "the single best pitch ever in the game." Buster Olney of ESPN.com referred to Rivera's cut fastball as "the most dominant pitch of a generation." Although switch-hitters usually bat left-handed against right-handed pitchers to better see the ball's release point, many switch-hitters bat right-handed when facing Rivera to avoid being jammed on the hands by his cutter.
Although the subject is continuously debated, some people in the baseball world consider Rivera the best relief pitcher in postseason history and the greatest closer in baseball history. Buster Olney says "no other player can instill calm in his team's fans as reliably as Mariano Rivera, the game's dominant closer and arguably the best relief pitcher of all time." Joe Torre, who managed Rivera for most of his career says, "He's the best I've ever been around. Not only the ability to pitch and perform under pressure, but the calm he puts over the clubhouse." Elliott Kalb rated Rivera as the 62nd greatest player of all time and suggests Rivera may be the "best relief pitcher in Yankee history" and the "possibly best relief pitcher in baseball history." Although voters have historically been reluctant to allow relievers into the Baseball Hall of Fame, many sports writers and baseball experts anticipate Rivera will be voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, once he retires.
In a position known for its volatility and turnover, Rivera has been described as standing out for his composure and consistency, performing well in the role in the 12 years he has maintained it. As a reliever, Rivera has finished the regular season with a sub-3.00 ERA in all but one season, and only once in his career has he pitched fewer than 60 innings in a season. His tenure as the Yankees' closer has exceeded the ordinary lifetime of a Major League closer, as only Trevor Hoffman has remained tenured as closer for the same team since 2002.
Additionally, many have praised Rivera for his humility and generosity. Rivera is very involved with philanthropic contributions in his native Panama, which includes building an elementary school and a church, providing Christmas gifts to children, and developing a program that provides computer access and adult mentors to youths.
Awards and honorsEdit
Rivera won the World Series MVP Award and Babe Ruth Award in 1999, after recording two saves and a win in the World Series, as well as the 2003 American League Championship Series MVP Award. Rivera has also won the Rolaids Relief Man of the Year Award four times (1999, 2001, 2004, and 2005). In honor of the men and women who served New York City during the 9/11 attacks and since relief pitchers are sometimes referred to as "firemen", he donated his 2001 trophy to the New York City Fire Department. It is on permanent display at the FDNY's Brooklyn headquarters. Rivera has also won MLB.com's Closer of the Year Award three times (in 2004–2006) and the DHL Delivery Man of the Year Award twice (in 2005 and 2006). Rivera is also a five-time The Sporting News Reliever of the Year Award recipient, earning the honor in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2004, and 2005. Other honors include being voted Baseball America's 1st-Team Major League All-Star reliever in 1999, 2001, 2004, and 2005 and being named the New York Yankees Player of the Year in 2005.
Rivera has accomplished numerous feats in his Major League career:
Rivera married his wife Clara on November 9, 1991. They have three sons: Mariano Jr., Jafet, and Jaziel.
Rivera is a deeply religious Christian. He maintains that God has a reason for everything that happens. For example, Rivera found his failure in Game 7 of the 2001 World Series easier to deal with when he learned of the consequences it had on a teammate. Had the Yankees won Game 7 and the World Series, Enrique Wilson would have flown home to the Dominican Republic and been aboard the deadly American Airlines Flight 587. "I am glad we lost the World Series," Rivera told Wilson, "because it means that I still have a friend." Perhaps as a way to illustrate his faith, Rivera's pitching glove is inscribed with a reference to Philippians 4:13 ("I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me.")
|1995||New York Yankees||5||3||5.51||0||67.0||71||41||30||51||1||0||0.00||0||5.1|
|1996||New York Yankees||8||3||2.09||5||107.2||73||25||34||130||1||0||0.63||0||14.1|
|1997||New York Yankees||6||4||1.88||43||71.2||65||15||20||68||0||0||4.50||1||2.0|
|1998||New York Yankees||3||0||1.91||36||61.1||48||13||17||36||0||0||0.00||6||13.1|
|1999||New York Yankees||4||3||1.83||45||69.0||43||14||18||52||2||0||0.00||6||12.1|
|2000||New York Yankees||7||4||2.85||36||75.2||58||24||25||58||0||0||1.72||6||15.2|
|2001||New York Yankees||4||6||2.34||50||80.2||61||21||12||83||2||1||1.13||5||16.0|
|2002||New York Yankees||1||4||2.74||28||46.0||35||14||11||41||0||0||0.00||1||1.0|
|2003||New York Yankees||5||2||1.66||40||70.2||61||13||10||63||1||0||0.56||5||16.0|
|2004||New York Yankees||4||2||1.94||53||78.2||65||17||20||66||1||0||0.71||2||12.2|
|2005||New York Yankees||7||4||1.38||43||78.1||50||12||18||80||0||0||3.00||2||3.0|
|2006||New York Yankees||5||5||1.80||34||75.0||61||15||11||55||0||0||0.00||0||1.0|
|2007||New York Yankees||3||4||3.15||30||71.1||68||25||12||74||0||0||0.00||0||4.2|
|2008||New York Yankees||2||2||0.76||21||35.1||17||3||3||40|
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- List of players from Panama in Major League Baseball
- List of Major League Baseball saves champions
- List of Major League Baseball all-time saves leaders
- List of Major League Baseball leaders in games finished
- ↑ Mariano's stats and biobox. Baseball Almanac. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Antonen, Mel. "Yanks' Rivera continues to learn", USA Today, 2006-10-09. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "Yankees closer will return for game", Associated Press, 2004-10-12. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Verducci, Tom. "Gotta get to Mo", Sports Illustrated, 2004-06-01. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Pedulla, Tom. "Yankees' Rivera saves best for last", USA Today, 2005-10-03. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 O'Dwyer, Kieran. "A cutter above", The Sporting News, 2006-07-27. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Kornheiser, Tony. "Time to Put Away the Sox", Washington Post, 2004-02-16, p. D01. Retrieved on 2006-08-09.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Buster Olney (2004-06-28). The Confidence Man: Inside the mind of baseball’s greatest closer, Mariano Rivera.. New York Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-05-18.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Rivera's 425th passes Franco", NY Daily News, 2007-07-15. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Career Pitching Postseason Leaders. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Botte, Peter. "Mo shuts door to keep season very much open", New York Daily News, 2005-10-10. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Rivera 'blessed' to wear No. 42. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera Career Stats. CBS Sportsline. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera: Major League, Minor League and college statistics. The Baseball Cube (2006-07-19). Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 Mariano Rivera Stats. ESPN.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Mariano Rivera Biography. Baseball Library. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
- ↑ 1995 AL Division Series - SEA vs. NYY. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- ↑ Verducci, Tom. "In '96, everyone was Mr. October", CNN Sports Illustrated, 1998-09-25. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
- ↑ Frommer, Harvey (1996). The New York Yankee Encyclopedia. Simon & Schuster.
- ↑ The Ballplayers - Mariano Rivera. BaseballLibrary.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
- ↑ Enter Sandman Songfacts. Songfacts. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Schoenfield, David. "Frozen Moment: Rivera finally fails", ESPN, 2001-11-05. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 New York Yankees 9, Seattle Mariners 7. Retrosheet (2000-10-17). Retrieved on 2007-07-28. The boxscore states Rivera's streak was broken at 34 innings, but the record-keeping done by this website only counts whole innings. For all intents of purposes of demonstrating the full length of the streak, it is listed here as 34.1 innings. Checking individual box scores on Retrosheet from the beginning until the end of the streak confirms this.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 Schechter, Gabriel. "A Closer Look: The Evolution of the Closer", National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Mariano Rivera Statistics. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2008-07-08.
- ↑ Kepner, Tyler (2002-08-20). Rivera Is Out With Injury For 3rd Time. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
- ↑ Kepner, Tyler (2003-03-27). Yanks to Take Cautious Approach With Mariano Rivera. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- ↑ Curry, Jack (2003-06-11). Acevedo Is Gone; Contreras Is on D.L.. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- ↑ Kepner, Tyler (2003-05-01). Mondesi's Slam and Rivera's Debut Frame Victory. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- ↑ Chris DeRosa (2004-02-27). "C" is For Closers: Enter Sandman. ESPN.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- ↑ Fordin, Spencer (2003-10-17). Press Row: Move over, Dent. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Yankees' Rivera inks extension. CBC (2004-03-23). Retrieved on 2008-05-22.
- ↑ Newman, Mark (2004-07-23). It's always a classic, so own it now. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
- ↑ Gagliano, Anthony (2004-05-29). Rivera earns 300th career save. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 Baseball Awards Voting for 2004. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 2004 AL Division Series-Yankees vs. Twins. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera Individual Player Stats - 2004 Postseason. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-22.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 38.2 Kepner, Tyler (2005-04-08). Fellow Pitchers Feel Rivera's Red Sox Pain. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 Shaughnessy, Dan. "Opening series almost too much for us to take", Boston Globe, 2005-04-07. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
- ↑ Cristodero, Damian (2005-04-10). Boo birds lose perspective with closer Rivera. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
- ↑ Klapisch, Bob. "Red Sox show Rivera who's boss", ESPN.com, 2005-04-07. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
- ↑ Feinsand, Mark. "Rivera has some fun with Sox fans", MLB.com, 2005-04-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 O'Connor, Ian. "Rivera's season stellar despite Cy Young results", USA Today, 2005-11-08. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 44.2 Baseball Awards Voting for 2005. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Feinsand, Mark (2006-07-10). Guillen tabs Rivera as AL stopper. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 "Young's two-run triple in ninth lifts AL All-Stars", ESPN, 2006-07-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Howard's 7 RBIs not enough for Phils", The Sporting News, 2006-06-20. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Mink, Ryan (2006-07-16). Rivera notches save No. 400. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Rivera's MRI shows mild muscle strain", Sporting News, 2006-08-31. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
- ↑ Feinsand, Mark. "Notes: Rivera to sit one more week", MLB.com, 2006-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 Delivery Man of the Month/Year Award by DHL. Baseball Almanac. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
- ↑ 52.0 52.1 2006: This Year in Baseball Awards. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera Stats and Splits. ESPN.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
- ↑ Howard, Johnette. "Mo's expressions worrisome", Newsday, 2007-05-09. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 55.2 Paul White. "Confidence game as closer has few winners", USA Today, 2007-05-30. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
- ↑ ESPN News Services. "Exit Sandman?", ESPN, 2007-10-09. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
- ↑ ESPN News Services. "Rivera accepts Yankees' 3-year, $45 million offer", ESPN, 2007-11-18. Retrieved on 2007-11-23.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera of the New York Yankees named Bank of America presents the American League Player of the Week. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-03.
- ↑ Jacobs, Jeff (2008-07-06). Rivera Cleans Up His Own Mess. courant.com. Retrieved on 2008-07-07.
- ↑ Klapisch, Bob (2008-07-08). Starting Rivera in Midsummer Classic would be ultimate tribute. ESPN.com. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
- ↑ Abraham, Peter (2008-07-06). When all the stars come out, Rivera deserves honorary start. LoHud.com. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
- ↑ Gameday 2007
- ↑ Verducci, Tom. "The Yankees allowed the Red Sox their day of Fenway glory, then dispatched Boston to resume their inexorable march back to the World Series", Sports Illustrated, 2000-03-22. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
- ↑ Quinn. New York Daily News. 9 June 2002.
- ↑ Stark, Jayson. "The pitches that scare major leaguers", ESPN. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ "Authors take on Ruthian legends", The San Diego Union-Tribune, March 8, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Curry, Jack. "End in Sight, Guillén Shows Respect With a Rare Retreat", The New York Times, 2006-07-17. Retrieved on 2006-08-10. (preview only)
- ↑ Buster Olney. "20 best postseason weapons", ESPN, 2006-09-29. Retrieved on 2006-09-29. (preview only)
- ↑ Kepner, Tyler. "For Yankees and Rivera, It's Case Closed", The New York Times, 2004-03-23. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
- ↑ "AL East", Sporting News, 2005-07-08. Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
- ↑ Kalb, Elliott (2005). Who's Better Who's Best in Baseball?. McGraw Hill.
- ↑ Current Major League Baseball closers
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 73.2 73.3 73.4 73.5 73.6 Mariano Rivera Biography and Career Highlights. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
- ↑ Major League Baseball Pitching Stats, Career All Time. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera: Sure Thing. Baseball-fever.com (2003-10-17). Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Career Leaders for Saves. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ "MLB scoreboard: New York Yankees at Tampa Bay Devil Rays", ESPN, 2004-05-28. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 Single-Season Leaders for Saves. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera Individual Player Postseason Stats. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Dennis Eckersley is the only other reliever to win the ALCS MVP Award and he did not win the World Series MVP.
- ↑ Stark, Jayson. "Sutter's time is now", ESPN, 2006-01-10. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Mariano Rivera 1996 Career Highlights. MLB.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
- ↑ New York Yankees Pitching Leaders. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
- ↑ 1996 American League Cy Young Award. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ 1999 American League Cy Young Award. Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ Olney, Buster. "Epilogue: 'The Last Night of the Yankee Dynasty'", ESPN, 2005-05-02. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- ↑ "Mo Gets More on his Plate", New York Daily News, 2006-07-14. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
- Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube
- Mariano Rivera - A Man with a Message
Todd Jones & Derek Lowe
|American League Saves Champion|
Todd Jones & Derek Lowe
Francisco Rodríguez & Bob Wickman
|World Series MVP|
|Babe Ruth Award|
|American League Championship Series MVP|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1969|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|