In 1877, the International Association featured teams based in:

  • London, Ontario (London Tecumsehs)
  • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh Alleghenies)
  • Rochester, New York (The Rochesters)
  • Manchester, New Hampshire (The Manchesters)
  • Columbus, Ohio (Columbus Buckeyes)
  • Guelph, Ontario (Guelph Maple Leafs)
  • Lynn, Massachusetts (Lynn Live Oaks)

The Association's by-laws and constitution required member teams to pay $10 to join the league (plus an additional $15 to compete for the championship) and fan admission was set at 25 cents. Visiting teams were guaranteed $75, plus half of the gate receipts when they exceeded that amount ($75).

Pitcher Candy Cummings (inducted posthumously into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York in 1939) was the first president of the International Association, while also a player for the Lynn Live Oaks of Massachusetts in 1877.

Jimmy Williams of Columbus served as the league's first Secretary.

Candy Cummings and Fred Goldsmith, star pitcher for the London Tecumsehs in 1876, 1877 and 1878 and the Chicago White Stockings from 1880-1884, have both been credited by various baseball authorities/ historians as inventing the curveball. Cummings, however, appears to have won out, as he was inducted into the Hall of Fame largely on that basis.

Final standings of the 1877 International Association[[|[1]]]Edit

London's star pitcher, Fred Goldsmith had a 14-4 record in 193 innings pitched with 3 shutouts, during International Association play in 1877.


In 1878, the league lost four teams - Guelph, Columbus, Rochester and Pittsburgh- however, it added the Binghamton Crickets, Hornellsville Hornells and Syracuse Stars. The cities of Buffalo, New York, Hartford, Connecticut, Lowell, Massachusetts, New Bedford, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, Springfield, Massachusetts and Worcester, Massachusetts also had representatives.[[|[2]]] Buffalo finished in first place.

In 1878 Bud Fowler, pitching for the Lynn, Massachusetts, club, became the first known African-American player in organized baseball.

Both the 1877 and 1878 leagues were Non-Signatory, (515)


The Teams that played in this Independent League are as follows: Allentown, PA; Altoona, PA; Atlantic City, NJ; Easton, PA; Lebanon, PA; Scranton, PA; Wilkes Barre PA; and Wilmington DE.


The teams that played in this Class C League are Bay City MI, Flint MI, Fort Wayne IN, Lansing MI, Lima OH, Marion IN, Muncie IN, and Saginaw MI.

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